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The correspondence of the Roman and Greek gods

The correspondence of the Roman and Greek gods is a list showing the relationship
of the gods and the mythological heroes of the two cultures.
Greek civilization had a great influence on the formation of Roman mythology.
Greek Description Rome
Hades God of the kingdom of the dead Pluto, Orc, Dispatcher
Amphitrite Wife of Poseidon (Neptune) Salacia
Apollo God of the sun and patron of the arts Phoebus
Ares god of War Mars
Artemis Goddess of hunting Diana
Askania The character of myths (son of Aeneas) Yul
Asclepius God of healing Aesculapius
Atlant Titan, eponyms of the ocean and mountains Atlas
Athena Goddess of wisdom and just war Minerva
Aphrodite Goddess of love and beauty Venus
Boreas God of the north wind Aquilon
Hebe Goddess of youth Juventus
Hecate Goddess of darkness and sorcery Trivia
Helios Sun god Sol
Gemera Deity of the day Dies
Gera Queen of the gods Juno
Hercules The hero of myths, the son of Zeus Hercules
Hermes The messenger of the gods, the patron of travelers and traders, the guide of the souls of the dead Mercury
Jesper Son of Atlanta or Astrea Vesper
Hestia Goddess of the hearth Vesta
Hephaestus God of fire and blacksmith's craft Volcano
Gaia Goddess of the earth Tellus
Hygia Goddess of health Salyus
Hymen Deity of marriage Thalassia
Hypnos, Morpheus God of sleep With me
Demeter Goddess of fields and fertility Ceres
Dido The character of myths the founder of Carthage Elissa
Dionysus, Bacchus God of viticulture and winemaking Bacchus, Liber
Zeus Supreme god Jupiter
Zephyr God of the west wind Favonius
Ilifia Goddess of childbirth Lyutsina
Hippolytus Hero, son of Theseus Virbiy
Cybele Goddess-lord of mountains, forests, beasts Ops
Bark Deity of the mother Earth Tellus
Kronos Titan, god of time Saturn
Summer Titanide (daughter of Kay and Phoebe) Latona
Libya Nymph, the eponym of Libya, and also this country Libya
Lissa Deity of insanity Mania
Shrew Goddess of revenge Furina
Moira Goddess of human destiny Parks
Muses Patroness of science, poetry and arts Kamensky
Nick, Nick Goddess of victory Victoria
Nicta The deity of the night Knox
The Music God of the south wind Austria
Odysseus Hero, the protagonist of the Odyssey Ulysses
Ossa Incarnation of Zeus Fama
Pan God of forests, hunters and shepherds, of all nature Faun
Persephone The goddess of fertility and the kingdom of the dead Proserpine, Carne, Furrin
Pistis Goddess of fidelity Fidesz
Plutos God of wealth Pluto
Polydeuces Hero, one of the Dioscuri, Castor's twin brother Pollux
Poseidon God of the seas and earthquakes Neptune
Selena Goddess of the moon Diana
Semele Mother of Dionysus Stimulus or Libera
Silenus Deities of forests Sylvan
Thanatos God of death Morse
Tyhe, Tyuhe, Tiha Goddess of chance and fate Fortune
Themis Goddess of justice Justice, Equitas
Phosphorus Solar deity Lucifer
Charites Goddess of beauty and grace Gracia
Chloris Goddess of flowers Flora
Enio Goddess of war Bellona
Eos Goddess of the morning dawn Aurora
Eris Goddess of discord Discordia
Erinia Goddess of revenge Furies
Eros God of love Cupid
Echo nymph Muta, Tacitus

Bonnar A. Greek civilization. From the Iliad to the Parthenon TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER VIII. PEOPLE AND GODS


 Greek religion is at first very primitive. So it was. Some concepts, very common for the classical era, like hybrids and nemesis, we find in such underdeveloped nations as the Mona tribes in the south of Indochina. To understand the religion of the Greeks one can not resort to comparisons borrowed from the Christian religion. During its more than a decade of existence, the religious life of the Greeks took on a variety of forms, with the exception of one: it was never clothed in a dogmatic form, which would make it much easier for us to become acquainted with it. In Greek religion there is nothing that would remind us of a catechism or a sermon. If only do not consider "preaching" tragic and comic representations. To some extent, they can be called a sermon, but in what sense - this will be more precisely said below. Add to this that in Greece there was no clergy, at any rate an influential priestly class, excluding the oracles of the great sanctuaries. Members of city magistrates, in addition to other functions, perform sacrifices, read the prayers. These ritual ceremonies are looked upon as ancestral tradition, which should not be neglected. But beliefs in themselves are extremely free, one can even say that they are somewhat vague. Beliefs are given less importance than observance of the ritual gesture. This is something like a salutatory wave of the hand, an air kiss to the great forces whose importance for human existence is recognized equally by the masses and the intelligentsia, which is rarely separated from the masses. Greek religion with its pomp and conglomeration resembles folklore. In fact, it is folklore. The difference that now takes place between religion and folklore probably makes sense when it comes to such a dogmatic religion as Christianity, but it completely loses it when it is referred to the ancient religions. It was in the living chaos of folklore traditions that ancient poets and artists were found, who remained believers until their art was turned to the people, the material from which they created and recreated the images of their gods without end: they made their faith more folk, and their gods more human. This progressive humanization of the divine is the most striking feature of the Greek religion. Of course, she has other sides, no less significant, but forced to choose, I will most definitely rest on this one.Initially, Greek religion, like any other primitive religion, reflects only the weakness of a person in the face of those "forces" that in nature, later in society and in their own minds, interfere with what seems to him to be his actions and pose a threat to his existence, the More terrible that he does not understand well where it comes from. Primitive man is not interested in nature and natural forces in themselves, but only nature insofar as it invades his life and determines its conditions.

A person, even primitive, is aware of his ability to reflect remember Odysseus, conceive all sorts of actions and foresee their consequences. But at every step he encounters obstacles, is mistaken and does not achieve the goal, which is to satisfy some of his elementary needs. From this he comes quite naturally to the conclusion that there are forces around him, much more powerful than himself, and whose behavior he absolutely can not foresee.

Thus, primitive man empirically ascertains the action of a deity, or some "power", which unexpectedly encroaches on his life. For the most part, it harms him, but occasionally benefits him. But this gracious or malignant force is manifested equally unexpectedly or arbitrarily. He does not understand its existence and actions. God is first and foremost a being that strikes. Before it manifests surprise, fear and respect. To express all these complex sensations, the Greek says "ii dos", and the Englishman "awe". A person does not consider this force to be supernatural, but he has a feeling that he meets someone "The Other".

Primitive religious feeling is almost entirely determined by the sense of the presence of this "Other".

The divine principle can exist in everything in stone, in water, in a tree or in an animal. It's not that everything in nature could become a deity, but it can become to them, for good or for good, and manifest themselves as a god.

A peasant is walking on a mountain; Near the trail, he discovers a pile of stones. It was formed over time from stones that peasants like him threw in this heap in passing. He calls these heaps "herms". In an unfamiliar area they serve him as a good landmark. Hermes inhabits the god; Later they will accept the human image and will be called Hermes, the conductor of travelers and souls of the dead on difficult roads that lead to the underworld. So far this is just a bunch of stones, but this pile is "god", that is, it is "power". Sometimes a traveler, having a desire to find a defender and to cheer up, leaves here some kind of offering, usually food. The next passer-by will eat this offering, if he is hungry, and call his find "germayonom".

The Greeks at the dawn of their history and then for a long period were farmers. Then the sailors. The same happened to their gods. They inhabit the fields, forests, rivers, springs. Then the sea. The country lacks water: it is not enough or it is very capricious. Rivers are rare and therefore sacred. Crossing the river, it is necessary to read the prayer and rinse your hands in the water. You can not pee in the river at its sources and estuary the peasant Hesiod teaches. The rivers bear fertility not only to the fields, but also to the human race. When a teenager becomes a young man and first cuts his long hair, strand it to the native river.

Each river has its own deity. The river god has a bull's body and a person's face. In European folklore, spirits of rivers still exist in the form of a bull. In Greece, the water spirit sometimes appears in the form of a horse. Poseidon, who became one of the main gods of classical Greece, is as closely connected with the horse as with the water. One day he struck a puddle of salt water with a trumpet, solemnly called the sea; Athenian Acropolis depicts how a winged horse Pegasus knocked out his hoof source Hippocrene on Mount Helicon. The form and functions of Poseidon vary depending on the occupation of the people who worship it. The sailors of Ionia Poseidon - the god of the sea. On the mainland and especially in the Peloponnese, it is simultaneously a god-horse and the god of earthquakes. Numerous rivers flowing into the earth, in order to sometimes appear again on the surface much further, are, according to popular belief, the cause of soil erosion and seismic shaking.

The Greeks inhabit nature with countless numbers and other spirits, to which they give the image of half-animals and half-humans. Centaurs with a horse's body and a human face belonging to poetic artistic fiction; But initially they, undoubtedly, arose from popular beliefs. The name of them, as it were, denotes "the scourged waters"; It is very likely that they arose as the spirits of the mountain streams of Pelion and Arcadia, to which poetic imagination had settled them. On the strengths of Ionia inscriptions say: they, with their ugly human body, horse legs and tails, as well as centaurs, personify the wild appearance of nature. In addition, they are itaphallic, which was by no means a comic feature, but expressed the great fruitful power of nature. The same property is possessed by satyrs with legs, ears and a goat's tail.
Since the VIII century BC. E. The Greeks become a people as much as the sea, as much as the agricultural one. Together with the "Odyssey" they are rushing to open and colonize new lands in the western Mediterranean. We know in what difficult conditions this was happening and on what wretched ships they were launched into the sea. Compared with Odysseus, keen on the uncharted edges of the Ionian Sea, Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic, sitting in a chair.

However, these expanses were not deserted. Behind every cape, in any narrow strait of the traveler, eagerly rushing to find an unknown and avidly searching for new areas, a sailor without a compass, is guarded by something "miraculous", born of his fears. "The desperation of the hungry belly makes it necessary to equip the ships and furrow the seas." And yet it is just beyond the sea, on the islands, beyond the infinite vastness of the abyss, you can see "miraculous things", discover the world, see its wonders.

Proceeding from popular ideas, more ancient than the "Iliad" itself, the wonderful creator of the "Odyssey" remakes existing forms of life into bizarre creations, he recreates them in a gigantic, in a funny or eternally beautiful. All these creatures, although they can not serve as a cult object, are indicative in the sense that they reflect the ambivalent feeling that excites the primitive people in the size of the vast sea: on the one hand, the sensation of its tremendous destructive power, on the other hand, its insidious Ability to attract a man. We laugh at the misadventure of Cyclops, because he was defeated by a very cunning man, to amuse us with this. But the sailors, lost somewhere on the coast of Sicily or near Naples, were hardly to laugh, when they could hear the menacing rumble of Vesuvius or Etna.

Cyclops, although they lead a seemingly peaceful, pastoral life, are in fact completely mysterious to people. It is useless to ask for something Polyphemus, this malicious cannibal, atheist and enemy of society. The poet of the Odyssey insistently emphasizes with what disgust the Cyclops refer to everything connected with civilized life: ships, laws, meetings. They, like other "monsters" of the poem, are endowed with brutish rudeness, perfect inability to understand the phenomena of nature, as they were understood by primitive people.

Take at least Scylla and Charybdis: it's some dizzying naval mechanic, capable only of absorbing ships, it's possible that these are monsters about six maws, with a triple jaw and teeth "carrying a black death." Such fantasies show how the horror experienced by a sailor in front of the monstrously destructive force of the sea is refracted in myths.

Circe and sirens reflect more complex symbols. These beautiful nymphs are a trap of nature, its face, capable of enticing us and bewitching (meaning that they are "sorceresses"). But the smile of the nymphs only poorly covers the basic property of the world of nature — its hostility towards the human race. (This idea should be developed further, beyond this too figurative language.) Circe uses its "charms" to turn people into animals, and locks them in their sheds. The sirens sing in divine voices, but the plain around them is dotted with bones. Nature is perceived here mainly as a contrast between its apparent beauty and its misanthropic essence. Hardly Circe succeeds in luring people, as she seeks to return them to that circle of nature over which she rules. People, turned it into pigs, whether in lions or not, immediately forget about the existence of the fatherland. Here the same thought is conducted as in other Odyssey legends: every time people enter the forbidden zone, into the blind world of nature, whenever they entice themselves to seduce someone from two-faced beings borrowed by the poet from the traditions for Images of the world, they inevitably lose their homeland — a symbol of their belonging to human society, they lose their return, as the poet says. They lose their quality, which distinguishes people living in society.

If they do not lose it irrevocably, if they do not allow themselves to be destroyed by the fear that deprives them of human qualities, then it is only because Odysseus is a man. I do not even call him a hero: no supernatural fire flashes on his head, like Diomedes or other Iliad warriors. Odysseus is completely human in appearance, bearing only the stamp of suffering and experiences drawn from them. He is a man, all threads connected with human society: he has first place in his love for his wife and son, then love of the earth and a love for work that creates values ​​and expresses action. Odysseus is a man, and he returns home because, having mobilized all the powers of his mind, heart and hands, he defeated the demons of the sea.
But already in those times when the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" were taking shape, the fear experienced by the seaman before the "supernatural" was partially overcome. Telling the fairies about their adventures, Odysseus, with his positive character, can still sometimes smile, remembering the fantastic and terrible sea created by his ancestors  seafarers. In the Odyssey itself, there are signs of the retreat of this "supernatural". The Greeks are not able to realize so many incredible secrets and to reconcile with the incomprehensible. They very soon replaced in their myths all these incredible monsters and cruel nymphs with gods in the human image, making them thus more understandable and explainable to the mind and imagination. As at sea, soothing anthropomorphism began to reign everywhere. So, Poseidon, the lord of the seas, harnesses his horses just like any noble warrior in the Iliad (though his horses fly in the waves). Around him fun dolphins, sea dogs, cetaceans are frolicking. The master of the sea has an underwater palace, in it lives his wife Amphitrite. Poseidon reigns in the countless kingdom of fish and monsters. These subjects are very insidious and elusive. As for Poseidon, he, like the waves of the sea, is eternally enraged and pursues his hatred of Odysseus and all the sailors embarking on the sea. But for all that Poseidon has appearance, thoughts and feelings of man: henceforth to sailors who are suffering from a sudden outburst of wrath of the sea god, one can guess the reasons for this anger and seek a means to calm him.

Such anthropomorphism  the humanization of the gods  extends not only to the sea possessions, but also to the entire universe. Zeus was originally the god of heaven, the god of the weather  lightning and thunderstorms, clouds enveloping the sky and spilling more disastrous than blessed downpours. In Greek, they say the same: "God will rain" or "Zeus rains". Then Zeus became the god of the fence. One of his ancient epithets was Germans  that is Zeus Tuna or fence. Then he became a house-god protecting from bad weather, he became the god of the hearth. Zeus Germans had an altar in every dwelling. He was honored as Zeus's father (Jupiter), which meant that he was not an ancestor, but a patron of the family. Zeus  the protector of the house and the stocks in it, and on this basis it is called in many Greek settlements by Zeus Ctesius (the Boss). Since he guards the house, guards bread and salt, the simplest food, since he offers them to the traveler who crossed the threshold, those who call him began to imagine him a hospitable host, friendly to strangers and compassionate towards the homeless. He is humane in his feelings and properties. This is at the same time the most powerful and kindest of the gods.

The other gods entering the Olympic pantheon are humanized too. Let us turn to Apollo. He is beautiful as day, his face radiates light. Some of its properties allow you to guess its origin from the sun. The arrows of Apollo are killed on the spot, like a sunstroke. However, he also heals the sick, as the sunlight heals. This god is very humane, full of kindness: he cleans and heals not only the body, but flushes the dirt of crimes if the culprit pray at his altar or plunges into the source near the sanctuary of the god in Delphi. But this must be done with a pure heart  this is clearly stated in one text. How can we not imagine in the guise of a man a god so close to people?

However, in some areas of Greece, namely the inhabitants of Arcadia, the people of the shepherd, Apollo is attributed another origin (the image of Apollo is synthetic: he absorbed several images of different origins). In Arcadia, he is Apollo Lichens, which means: the god of wolves, a wolf destroyer. He guards the herd, carries lambs and calves in his arms. Archaic sculpture presents it to us in the image of a good shepherd. This image passed through centuries and religions: the image of Apollo and Hermes by good shepherds carrying small lambs on their shoulders is the same image of the beardless Christ that we see in the catacombs or on the Ravenna stained-glass windows  the oldest image of a god in the form of a man.

On the other hand, Apollo, the god of the day, has such a sharp eye that he penetrates into the future and reveals it. In the Delphic sanctuary, in the valley at the foot of Parnassus, is the famous temple of Apollo, revered throughout the ancient world  Hellenic and barbarous. There, God inspires the soothsayer, and the priests interpret in the form of prophesies the inarticulate words of the Pythia. Apollo knows what is needed for the welfare of citizens and cities. In his sanctuary thousands of believers crowd. God is asked about all questions, as they are now consulting with a lawyer, a notary or a priest. In many cases, his advice is excellent. If it was a question of establishing a new overseas city, God pointed to the most favorable location and informed about the resources of the country where they are going to emigrate. (There is no doubt that the priests who issued the oracles collected information about unknown countries, just as it is practiced by any travel agency, they are not even in the least sky.
So were born after the primitive period some images of this religion, the religion of the gods who inhabited Olympus.

Recreated by Homer 1, the brilliant poet of the Iliad, the Greek gods become unusually human. We feel with all our senses their physical presence. It is not enough to say that they are alive. We often hear their cries, sometimes even cries. The hair of Zeus and Poseidon is blacker than it is in nature  they are blue. We literally see the dazzling white or dark blue robes of the goddesses; They are also of saffron color. They have veils that sparkle, "like the sun." Hera wears gems of the size of a blackberry berry. The venture of Zeus all shines with gold, he has a cloak of gold, a golden scepter, like a scourge and everything else. Her face is framed by two brilliant braids. It is smeared with strongly smelling incenses: the smell of them fills the sky and the earth. The eyes of Athena shine, in Aphrodite they resemble the brilliance of marble. Hera is covered with drops of sweat, Hephaestus wipes his wet face, he has a hairy chest. He noticeably lame ... There is no end to such signs. These gods of flesh and blood deafen us and dazzle us. If you slightly crossed the line  we would have to warp from them!

1 "Homer and Hesiod," wrote Herodotus, "have established the origin of the gods ... they have outlined their appearance."

This physical essence is answered by an equally powerful spiritual life, but still different from the life of the heroes. If it is not more complicated than it, it is more obscured. These gods of flesh and blood  sometimes they seem to be our own, somewhat more heavyweight reflection  have become much more humane, and therefore more accessible to our prayers than were the primitive gods  owls and stones  but they still preserve something unspeakable, Something that just turns them into gods. Sometimes we guess it by some small details. So, when Aphrodite, descended on the battlefield, injures Diomedes, the poet says:

... The same Cyprian was chased by brutal brass.......Read more

Bonnar A. Grecheskaya civilizaciya. Tom 1. Ot Iliady do Parfenona/ Bonnard A. Greek civilization. Volume1 From Iliad to Parthenon