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God Name and Meaning

List of Gods   : "Mesopotamian"

NameOriginDescription
God name "A'as" Hittite / Hurrian God of wisdom. Derived from the Mesopotamian model of ENKI / EA. A'as keeps the tablets of fate....
Goddess name "A-a" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian / / western Semitic Sun goddess. Consort of the un god SAMAS . Also AYA....
God name "ADAD (wind)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian weather god. His father is the supreme sky god ANU. He is described as a benevolent giver of life in the fields but is also a more violent storm god. His name in Akkadian cuneiform means “wind.” His animal is the bull. In human form he is depicted wearing horned headdress and tiered skirt or robe decorated with astral symbolism. He may carry a scimitar embellished with a single panther head and his symbol is the lightning fork often fixed upon a pair of pincers....
God name "ADONIS (lord)" Lebanon / Syria Fertility and vegetation god. Adonis is modeled on the Mesopotamian dying vegetation god DUMUZI (Hebrew: Tammuz). He appears as a youthful deity. The river Adonis [Nahr Ibrahim] is sacred to him largely because its waters flow red after heavy Winter Rains, having become saturated with ferrous oxide. In Hellenic tradition he is the son of the mythical Cyprian king Cinyras and his mother is MYRRHA. According to Hesiod he is also the son of Phoenix and Alphesiboea. He is the consort of APHRODITE. Tradition has it that he was killed by a boar during a hunting expedition and is condemned to the underworld for six months of each year, during which the earth's vegetation parches and dies under the summer Sun and drought. He was honored in a spring festival when priests in effeminate costume gashed themselves with knives. Frequently depicted nude and sometimes carrying a lyre. Also ATTIS (Phrygian); ATUNIS (Etruscan)....
God name "AN (1) (sky)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Iraq Supreme creator god. In Sumerian creation mythology An is the supreme being and, with his chthonic female principle, KI, is the founder of the cosmos. Also, in some texts, identified as the son of ANS'AR and KIS'AR. The head of the older generation of gods....
Goddess name "ASTORETH" Philistine , Israel, Lebanon Fertility goddess. Astoreth equates with the Syrian goddess ASTARTE, both being modeled on the Mesopotamian ISTAR. She was adopted, typically, as goddess of both love and war. She is usually depicted wearing a horned headdress....
Goddess name "ATTIS" Phrygia / northwestern Turkey vegetation god. Attis is a “dying and rising” fertility god modeled on the Mesopotamian DUMUZI. He is considered to have originated as a shepherd. In alternative traditions, KYBELE, the “great mother,” is either his mother or purely his consort. Another legend suggests he was conceived immaculately by the demigoddess NANA when she placed a ripe almond in her bosom....
Spirit name "Abgal" Pre - Islamic northern Arabian (1) Desert god. Known from the Palmyrian desert regions as a tutelary god of Bedouins and camel drivers.(2) Minor attendant spirits. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Associated with ENKI and residing in the Abzu or primeval water....
God name "Abu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Minor vegetation god. Said to have sprung from the head of the god ENKI, thus symbolizing plants emerging from the earth's soil....
Deity name "Abzu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Primordial deity of underground waters. His center of cult is at Eridu (southern Mesopotamia), and he was replaced in Akkadian times by APSU....
Deities name "Alad Udug Lama" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Collective name of guardian deities. Vague spirits who accompany major deities and dispense good fortune....
Goddess name "Allatu(m)" Western Semitic Chthonic underworld goddess. Modeled on the Mesopotamian goddess ERESKIGAL and possibly also equating with ARSAY in Canaanite mythology. Recognized by the Carthaginians as Allatu....
Goddess name "Ama-arhus" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Fertility goddess. Mentioned in texts as being among the pantheon at Uruk in Hellenistic times but also found as an earlier manifestation of the god GULA. Also Arad-Ama-arhus, Amat-Ama-arhus....
Goddess name "Amasagnul" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Fertility goddess. Mentioned in prebend documents from the Hellenistic period at Uruk and thought to be the consort of the god PAPSUKKAL....
God name "Anm (1)" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Creator god. Consort of ANTU(m). Derived from the older Sumerian god AN. Anu features strongly in the akitu festival in Babylon, Uruk and other cities until the Hellenic period and possibly as late as 200 BC. Some of his later pre-eminence may be attributable to identification with the Greek god of heaven, ZEUS, and with OURANOS....
Deity name "Ans ar" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Primordial deity. Mentioned in the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis' as one of a pair of offspring (with KIS'AR) of LAHMU and LAHAMU, and who in turn created ANU. Ans'ar is linked with heaven while Kis'ar is identified with earth....
Goddess name "Anunitu" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Mother goddess. See also ANTU....
Goddess name "Anunnaki" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Children and courtiers of the god of heaven. Known from at least 2500 BC until circa 200BC (in Babylon). The Anunnaki originate as chthonic fertility deities but later feature as the seven fearsome judges of the underworld who answer to Kur and ERES KIGAL and who are responsible for passing sentences of death including that placed on the goddess INANA. They are often closely identified with the IGIGI....
God name "Apsu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of underground primeval waters. Derived from the Sumerian ABZU. In the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis Apsu is killed, while sleeping, by ENKI, who establishes his own abode above the deeps. Apsu's death triggered the cosmic challenge between the forces of MARDUK and TIAMAT....
Goddess name "Aruru" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Mother goddess. See also NINHURSAG A....
God name "Asalluha" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor god. A son of ENKI who apparently acts as a messenger and reporter to his father. Linked with rituals of exorcism. Cult center Ku'ara. In Babylonian times he became largely syncretized with MARDTK....
Goddess name "Asnan" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian vegetation goddess. Minor deity probably known to the Sumerians from circa 3500BC or earlier. She is concerned with the abundance of grain in the fields, sent as its protectress by the gods ENLIL and ENKI. According to creation accounts, she and the cattle god LAHAR were first intended to serve the needs of the Annunaki, the celestial children of AN, but when the heavenly creatures were found unable to make use of their products, humankind was created to provide an outlet for their services. Attributes: ears of corn sprouting from her shoulders....
God name "Assur" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Tutelary god. The national deity of Assyria. In the Assyrian copies of the creation epic Enuma Elis he replaces MARDUK as the hero....
Goddess name "Astlik" Pre - Christian Armenian Astral goddess. Derived from the Mesopotamian model of ISTAR. Survived in Christian times as the mother of fairies....
Goddess name "Aya" Mesopotamian / Babylonian Akkadian Mother goddess. Derived from the Sumerian model of S ERIDA. Consort of the Sun god S AMAS whose marriage was celebrated at New Year in Babylon....
Goddess name "Baba" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Fertility goddess. Locally worshiped in Lagas, where Gudea built her a temple. Also Bau....
God name "Bel" ” Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Generic title meaning “lord. The Babylonian god MARDUK was often addressed as Bel, and the name occurs in the Vetus Testamentum. The New Year festival of akitu in Babylon included a ceremony of “leading Bel by the hand.” The name also appears at Palmyra as the tutelary creator god whose attributes include lightning and an eagle....
Goddess name "Belet-Ili (lady of tbe gods)" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Mother goddess. Known in Babylon and probably modeled on NINHURSAG A....
Goddess name "Belet-Seri" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Chthonic underworld goddess. The recorder of the dead entering the otherworld. Known as the “Scribe of the earth.”...
Goddess name "Belili" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess. See GES TIN-ANA....
Goddess name "Beltiya (my lady)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Generic title of goddess. ZARPANITUM (SARPANITUM), the consort of the Babylonian god MARDUK, is often addressed as Beltiya....
God name "Birdu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor chthonic underworld god. Consort of MANUNGAL and syncretized with NERGAL....
God name "Dagan (1)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Grain and fertility god. Generally linked with ANU in giving status to cities e.g. the dedications by the ninth-century BC Assyrian king Assur-nasir-apli at Kalakh. Cult centers existed at Tuttul and Terqa....
Goddess name "Damaannrna" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Mother goddess. She first appears as a consort of ENLIL and, as Mesopotamian traditions progress, becomes associated with EA and the mother of the Babylonian god MARDUK. Also DAMKINA (Akkadian)....
Goddess name "Damkina" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess. Consort of Ea.See also DAMGALNUNA....
God name "Eikimdu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God of canals and ditches. In creation mythology he is given his task by the god ENKI. See also ENBILULU....
God name "Eimesarra" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Chthonic god of the law. According to texts he controls the me's or Divine rules....
God name "Ellil" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Creator god. See also ENLIL....
God name "Emes”" Mesopotamian / Sumerian vegetation god. Emes was created at the wish of ENLIL to take responsibility on earth for woods, fields, sheep folds and stables. He is identified with the abundance of the earth and with summer. An unidentified deity who is depicted iconographically with a plough may well be Emes....
God name "Enbilulu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian River god. In creation mythology he is placed in charge of the sacred rivers Tigris and Euphrates by the god ENKI. He is also god of canals, irrigation and farming. In Babylonian times he becomes the son of EA and is syncretized with ADAD....
God name "Endursaga (lofty mace)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Herald god. He leads the Sumerian pantheon particularly in times of conflict. Also IS UM (Akkadian)....
God name "Ennugi" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / BabylonianAkkadian God. The attendant and throne-bearer of ENLIL (ELLIL)....
God name "Enten" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Fertility god. Created by ENLIL as a guardian deity of farmers alongside the minor god EMES , Enten was given specific responsibility for the fertility of ewes, goats, cows, donkeys, birds and other animals. He is identified with the abundance of the earth and with the Winter period....
God name "Enzu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian God. The name is a corruption, apparently a misreading of Suen, the archaic form of SIN....
God name "Erra" Mesopotamian / Babylonian Akkadian God of war. Known chiefly from the Erra Epic, circa 1000 BC, he is also the god of raids, riots and scorched earth. Closely identified with the god NERGAL, his cult center is Emeslam in the city of Kutha (lost). In Babylonian times he is identified as a plague god....
Goddess name "Galla" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor underworld gods. Attendants of the goddess ERES KIGAL. Also Gallu....
Goddess name "Gangir" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess. One of the seven daughters of the goddess Baba, known chiefly at Lagas'. Also, and more properly, Hegir-Nuna....
Goddess name "Gatumdug" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Fertility goddess. The daughter of the sky god AN, she is the tutelary mother goddess of Lagas'....
God name "Gerra" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian God of fire. Derived from the Sumerian GIBIL, he is the son of ANU and ANUNITU and becomes largely syncretized with both ERRA and NERGAL....
Goddess name "Ges”tin-Ana" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Chthonic goddess. The sister of DUMUZI and consort of Ningisida. The so-called “heavenly grape-vine,” this minor goddess is involved in the account of Dumuzi trying to escape from his fate at the hands of INANA and ERESKIGAL. In her house he is changed into a gazelle before being caught and finally transported to the underworld....
God name "Ges”tu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor god of intellect. According to legend he was sacrificed by the great gods and his blood was used in the creation of mankind....
God name "Gibil" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Fire god. The son of AN and KI. By the Akkadian period he becomes known as GERRA....
God name "Giszida" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / BabylonianAkkadian God. See Nin-giszida. See also NINGISZIDA....
Goddess name "Gugulanna" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Minor underworld deity. The consort of the goddess ERESiKIGAL, mentioned as the pretext on which the fertility goddess INANA descends to the netherworld....
Goddess name "Gula (great one)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess of healing. Consort of NINURTA. Her animal is the dog. She may be synonymous with NIN'INSINA. Also mentioned in Hellenistic Babylonian times. A Gula temple is described at Uruk. Also NINTINUGGA....
Goddess name "Gunura" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian deity of uncertain status. Described variously as the husband of the goddess NIN'INSINA and the father of Damu (DUMUZI), but also as the sister of Damu....
God name "Gusilim (loud voice)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God. See also ISTARAN....
God name "Hahanu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of uncertain function. Known from passing reference in texts and from inscriptions....
God name "Hani(s)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor god. The attendant of ADAD and linked with SULLAT....
God name "Hayasum" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor god. Known from texts, but of uncertain function....
God name "Hendursaga" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of the law. He was titled by Gudea of Lagas ”herald of the land of Sumer.”...
God name "IS KUR" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Iraq storm god. The chief Rain and thunder god of herdsmen, Is”kur is described as the brother of the Sun god UTU. In creation mythology Is”kur is given charge over the winds, the so-called “silver lock of the heart of heaven,” by the god ENKI. According to some authors, in prehistoric times he was perceived as a bull or as a lion whose roar is the thunder. He may be depicted as a warrior riding across the skies in a chariot, dispensing Raindrops and hailstones. In one text he is identified as the son of AN and twin brother of Enki. He is to be compared with NINURTA who was primarily a god of farmers. He was also adopted by the Hittites as a storm god....
God name "Igigi" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Collective name of a class of gods. The group of younger sky gods in the pantheon headed by ENLIL (ELLIL). They are often described in the texts in conjunction with the ANUNNAKI....
God name "Ilabrat" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor god. The attendant and minister of state of the chief sky god ANU....
Goddess name "Inana" Mesopotamian / Sumeria A goddess of fertility, of love & war
Goddess name "Inana, Istar,Ishtar" Akkadian / Sumerian The most important of all Mesopotamian goddesses, and a multi-faceted personality, occurring in cuneiform texts of all periods. The Sumerian name probably means "Lady of heaven";, and the Akkadian name Ishtar is related to the Syrian Astarte and the biblical Ashtaroth is usually considered as a daughter of Anzu, with her cult located in Uruk, but there are other traditions as to her ancestry, and it is probable that these reflect originally different goddesses that were identified with her. Ishtar is the subiect of a cycle of texts describing her love affair and ultimately fatal relationship with Tammuz.
Goddess name "Is'ara" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian / / western Semitic Goddess of marriage and childbirth. Also a deity concerned with the enforcing of oaths. Known chiefly from early inscriptions and some Akkadian texts. Her Mesopotamian cult center was the Babylonian town of Kisurra, but she is also thought to have been worshiped across a wide area among Syrians, Canaanites and Hittites. Her symbol is the scorpion. Also Es ara....
God name "Isimud" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Messenger god. Readily identified by possessing two faces looking in opposite directions, Isimud is the messenger of the god ENKI. Also Isinu; Usumu (Akkadian)....
God name "Isinu" Mesopotamian A two-faced god who carried messages for Enki. Mesopotamian
God name "Is”taran" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Local god. The tutelary god of the city of Der, east of the river Tigris in northern Babylonia. Also GUSILIM....
God name "Is”um" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Minor god. The brother of SAMAS', the Sun god, and an attendant of the plague god ERRA. He may have been a god of fire and, according to texts, led the gods in war as a herald but was nonetheless generally regarded as benevolent. Known particularly from the Babylonian legend of Erra and Is“um. Also ENDURSAGA....
God name "Kabta" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God of artisans. In creation mythology he is given charge over brickmolds and pickaxes....
God name "Kakka" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Minor god. He was the attendant and minister of state to both ANU and ANS AR, and is known particularly from the text of Nergal and Ere skigal....
God name "Ki (the great one)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Archetypal chthonic principle. According to some traditions, Ki is the daughter of ANS'AR and KIS'AR and consort of AN. As the cosmos came into being, An took the role of god of heaven and Ki became the personification of the earth and underworld. She is the mother of the god of the air, ENLIL, with whom she descended from the heavens. Some authorities argue that she was never regarded as a deity. There is no evidence of a cult and the name appears in a limited number of Sumerian creation texts. The name URAS (tilth) may relate.See also ANTU(M)....
God name "Kis”ar" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Primordial god(dess). The consort or equal of ANS'AR and mother or creator of AN and KI in the creation cosmos....
God name "Kulla" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of builders. The god responsible for the creation of bricks....
God name "Kus" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of herdsmen. Identified in the Theogony of Dunnu....
Deity name "Lahamu" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Primordial deity. Known from the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis as one of a pair who were created by TIAMAT from the primeval ocean and who, it is suggested, were represented by the silt of the sea-bed. Lahamu and LAHMU in turn created ANS'AR and KIS'AR, who created ANU....
Goddess name "Lahar" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God of cattle. According to legend, he was sent to earth by the gods ENLIL and ENKI, to work in conjunction with the grain goddess AS'NAN. In iconography he usually has ears of corn sprouting from his shoulders. He may also carry a bow and club and is often depicted with a ram at his feet....
Deity name "Lahmu" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Primordial deity. Known from the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis as one of a pair who were created by TIAMAT from the primeval ocean and who, it is suggested, were represented by the silt of the sea-bed. Lahmu and LAHAMU in turn created ANS'AR and KIS'AR, who created ANU....
Goddess name "Lilith" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess of desolation. She is perceived as a demonic figure who, in the epic legend of Gilgames“ and the Huluppu Tree takes up residence in INANA'S holy tree growing on the banks of the Euphrates in Unug. When the hero Gilgames” attacks Lilith she escapes into the desert wastes....
God name "Lugal-Irra" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Chthonic underworld god. Probably a minor variation of ERRA, the Babylonian plague god. The prefix Lugal means ”lord.” Often coupled with MES LAM TAEA, god of war....
God name "Lulal" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of uncertain status. Mentioned as living in BadtIbira in the Sumerian text Descent of Inana. Also linked with a god Latarak....
Goddess name "Mami" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Mother goddess. Identified in the Atrahasis texts and other creation legends and probably synonymous with NINHURSAG A. She was involved in the creation of mankind from clay and blood. The name almost certainly came into use because it is the first word that a child formulates. Also Mama; Mammitum....
Goddess name "Mamitu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess of oaths and treaties. One of the consorts of NERGAL and subsequently identified as a chthonic underworld deity. Also Mammetu....
God name "Mandanu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of Divine judgment. Known from the neo-Babylonian period....
God name "Manmngal" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Chthonic underworld god. A minor deity, the consort of birdU....
God name "Martu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Tutelary god. The patron god of the city of Ninab mentioned in the texts but never re-discovered. Probably not a true Sumerian deity but adopted from an unknown western Semitic culture. He is sometimes identified as a storm god....
God name "Mes Ai Du" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / BabylonianAkkadian God. Probably an alternative title for the Sun god (see S AMAS )....
God name "Mes Lam Taea" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of war. An aggressive aspect of the chthonic underworld god NERGAL. Often linked with the god LUGAL-IRRA....
God name "Muati" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Obscure local god. Associated in some texts with the mythical island Paradise of Dilmun, he becomes syncretized with NABU....
Goddess name "Mulliltu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess. The consort of ELLIL (ENLIL) and of ASSUR. She derives from the Sumerian goddess NINLIL....
God name "Musdamma" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God of buildings. Described as the “great builder of ENLIL,” Mus damma is a minor deity appointed by the god ENKI to take responsibility for building projects and for houses....
Goddess name "N ssaba" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess of writing and wisdom. A daughter of AN and probably orig inally a vegetation deity. Her symbol is the inscribing stylus. She is a patron deity of Unug [Warka]....
Goddess name "NAMMU" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian / Iraq Chthonic creator and birth goddess. Nammu is identified in various texts as the goddess of the watery deeps. As a consort of AN she is the mother of ENKI and the power of the riverbed to produce water. Alternatively Nammu is the progenitrix of An and KI, the archetypal deities of heaven and earth. She also engendered other early gods and in one poem is the mother of all mortal life. She molded clay collected by creatures called sig-en-sig-du and brought it to life, thus creating mankind. She is attended by seven minor goddesses and may ultimately have become syncretized with NINHURSAG A....
Goddess name "NINURTA (lord plough)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian / Iraq God of thunderstorms and the plough. Ninurta is the Sumerian god of farmers and is identified with the plough. He is also the god of thunder and the hero of the Sumerian pantheon, closely linked with the confrontation battles between forces of good and evil that characterize much of Mesopotamian literature. He is one of several challengers of the malignant dragon or serpent Kur said to inhabit the empty space between the earth's crust and the primeval sea beneath. Ninurta is the son of Enlil and Ninhursaga a, alternatively Ninlil, and is the consort of Gula, goddess of healing. He is attributed with the creation of the mountains which he is said to have built from giant stones with which he had fought against the demon Asag. He wears the horned helmet and tiered skirt and carries a weapon Sarur which becomes personified in the texts, having its own intelligence and being the chief adversary, in the hands of Ninurta, of Kur. He carries the double-edged scimitar-mace embellished with lions' heads and, according to some authors, is depicted in nonhuman form as the thunderbird lmdugud (sling stone), which bears the head of a lion and may represent the hailstones of the god. His sanctuary is the E-padun-tila. Ninurta is perceived as a youthful warrior and probably equates with the Babylonian heroic god Marduk. His cult involved a journey to Eridu from both Nippur and Girsu. He may be compared with Is”kur, who was worshiped primarily by herdsmen as a storm god....
God name "Nabu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of writing and wisdom. The son of MARDUX and ZARPANITU(M), his consort is TASMETU(M). He is symbolized by the inscribing stylus. A major deity in neo-Babylonian times from the eighth century BC onward, with an important sanctuary at Borsippa, near Babylon, known as the Ezida. He is considered a god of mountain regions, described as the “firstborn son of Marduk” and his image is closely involved in the New Year akitu festival. Also NEBO (Vetus Testamentum)....
Goddess name "Namtar (fate)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Messenger god(dess). A go-between and either minister or maid-servant of the underworld goddess ERES KIGAL, who brings death to mankind at the appropriate time....
Goddess name "Nanaja" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Fertility goddess. She is also a war goddess who became syncretized with the Babylonian TAS METU....
Goddess name "Nans”e" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess of justice. A daughter of ENKI (or EA), she is linked with the interpretation of dreams. Mentioned sporadically in texts and most closely identified with the city of Lagas with a cult center at Sirara, but also the subject of a highly ethical hymn from Nippur. Also Nas, Nina....
Goddess name "Negun" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Minor goddess. Known from limited references and of uncertain function. Possibly associated with the goddess SIRARA. Her brother is As”ai and they are linked with the cities of Adab and Kes”. Also Lisin....
Goddess name "Neti" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Chthonic underworld god. Chief gatekeeper of the netherworld. The servant of the goddess ERES KIGAL. Neti features prominently in the epic legend of Inana‘s Descent into the underworld when he opens the seven gates of the realm and admits the goddess, removing one emblem of her power at the threshold of each gate....
Goddess name "Nikkal" Western Semitic / Syrian moon goddess. The consort of the moon god Jarih and probably evolved from the Mesopotamian pantheon....
Goddess name "Nin Mar Ki" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess. See NINMAH....
Goddess name "Nin Me En" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess. Probably equating to NINMENA....
God name "Nin Ur" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God. Probably synonymous with NINURTA....
God name "Nin-Ildu" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian God of carpenters. Minor tutelary deity....
Goddess name "Nin-Imma" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Fertility goddess. Deification of the female sex organs, fathered by Enki with Ninkurra....
Goddess name "Nin-s ar (lady plant)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Minor mother goddess. Nin-s.ar is linked briefly as consort to either Enlil (her father) or Enki by whom, after nine days of gestation, she gave birth to the goddess Ninkurra who, in turn, became the mother of the goddess Uttu....
God name "Ninazu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Chthonic god. Less frequently encountered in the texts than NERGAL. Son of ENLIL and NINLIL or, in alternative traditions, of ERES KIGAL and the father of Ning-is-zida. The patron deity of Es nunna until superseded by TISPAK. His sanctuaries are the E-sikil and E-kurma. Also identified as a god of healing, he is (unlike Nergal) generally benevolent....
Goddess name "Nindara" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God. The consort of the goddess NANS E....
God name "Nindub" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God. Locally known and identified with the city state of Lagas ....
God name "Ninegal (strong-armed lord)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian Akkadian God of smiths. A minor patron deity....
Goddess name "Ningal (great queen)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Reed goddess. Ningal is the daughter of ENKI and NINGIKUGA and the consort of the moon god NANNA by whom she bore UTU...
Goddess name "Ningikuga (lady of the pure reed)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess of reeds and marshes. One of the consorts of ENKI and the daughter of AN and NAMMU....
Deity name "Ningilin" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Obscure deity. His symbol is probably the mongoose. Also Ninkilim....
God name "Ningirama" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of magic. A minor deity invoked particularly as a protection against snakes....
God name "Ningirsu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Tutelary god. His mother is NINHURSAGa A. Known from the city of Lagas (Girsu) where Gudea built a major temple in his honor, the Eninnu. His symbol is a lion-headed eagle and his weapon the mace S, arur. Texts describe Ningirsu making a journey to Eridu to notify the god ENKI of Gudea's achievement....
God name "Ningishzida" Sumerian An underworld Mesopotamian deity, the patron of Medicine, and also a God of nature. His name in Sumerian means "lord of the good tree". Sumerian
God name "Ningiszida" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / BabylonianAkkadian The god of light coming from the horizon. Tutelary god of Gudea of Lagas,, the son of NINAZU. Identified in Akkadian texts and on a seal of Gudea. Also GISZIDA....
Goddess name "Niniiniinna" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Fertility goddess. A daughter of An and Uras and probably an alternative name for Is”tar. She is the consort of the god Pabilsag and is mentioned in respect of a sanctuary built by warad Sin during the Isin dynasty. Texts describe her going to present Enlil with gifts in Nippur. Other inscriptions suggest she was the mother of the god Damu (Dumuzi)....
God name "Ninkarnunna" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Barber god. An attendant of the god Ninurta....
God name "Ninkigal" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Chthonic god. Worshiped at Ur and Umma during the period of the third dynasty of Ur. Celebrations included the eses monthly lunar festivals....
Goddess name "Ninkurra" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor mother goddess. Ninkurra is linked briefly as consort to Enlil (her grandfather), by whom after nine days of gestation she gave birth to the goddess Uttu. In alternative mythology she was the mother of Nin-imma, the deification of female sex organs....
Goddess name "Ninlil" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess of the air and of grain. She is the daughter of the god of stores, Haia, and the barley goddess, Ninsebargunnu. The consort of the air god Enlil, who impregnated her with water to create the moon god Nana, she also conceived the underworld god Nergal when Enlil impregnated her disguised as the gateman of Nippur. In a similar manner she conceived the underworld god Ninazu when Enlil impregnated her disguised as the “man of the river of the nether world, the man-devouring river.” According to some texts she is also the mother of Ninurta, the god of the plough and thunderstorms....
Goddess name "Ninmah" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Mother goddess. Probably an early syncretization with Ninhursaga a. Identified in creation texts acting as midwife while the mother goddess Nammu makes different kinds of human individuals from lumps of clay at a feast given by Enki to celebrate the creation of humankind. Also regarded as the mother of the goddess Uttu by Enki.See also Ninhursagaa....
Goddess name "Ninmrna (lady of the crown)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Mother goddess. Probably became syncretized with Ninhursagaa....
Goddess name "Ninni" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess. A modern mis-reading of Innin, which is itself an outmoded version of the name Inana....
Goddess name "Nins ubur" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Messenger God (Goddess). The servant of the goddess Inana, she is particularly prominent in the legend of Inana's Descent and the death of Dumuzi. In Akkadian texts the sex changes to a male personality, the minister of Anu....
Goddess name "Ninsikil" Mesopotamian / Sumerian The goddess of Dilmun. The patron deity of the mythical Paradise land of Dilmun which seems to have been perceived as somewhere off the coast of the Persian Gulf but firmly beyond the frontiers of Sumer. It is Ninsikil who pleads with Enki to provide the earth with the boon of fresh water in the sacred rivers Tigris and Euphrates....
Goddess name "Ninsun(a) (lady wild cow)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian cow goddess. Tutelary goddess of Gudea of Lagas.. Consort of the Sumerian heroic king Lugalbanda and also identified as the mother of the hero Gilgames.....
Goddess name "Nintinugga" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Goddess. See Gula....
Goddess name "Nintu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Mother goddess. According to legend she pinched off fourteen pieces of primordial clay which she formed into womb deities, seven on the left and seven on the right with a brick between them, who produced the first seven pairs of human embryos. She is closely identified with the goddess Ninhursaga a and may have become Belet Ili (mistress of the gods) when, at Enki's suggestion, the gods slew one among themselves and used his blood and flesh, mixed with clay, to create mankind....
God name "Nu Mus Da" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Tutelary god. The patron deity of the lost city of Kazallu, mentioned in texts....
God name "Nudimmud" Akkadian An Akkadian epithet of the Mesopotamian god Ea which meant 'begetter', referring to his fathering of Marduk; he is referred to by this name in the Enuma Elish.
God name "Nudimmud" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Creator god. Rapidly syncretized with the Akkadian god EA....
Goddess name "Nunbarsegunu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Obscure mother goddess. Mentioned in creation texts as the “old woman of Nippur,” she is identified as the mother of NINLIL, the air goddess. Nunbarsegunu allegedly instructs her daughter in the arts of obtaining the attentions of ENLIL....
God name "Nus ku" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian God of light. The son of ENLIL. Also a god of fire, he is symbolized by a lamp. Sanctuaries have been identified at Harran and Neirab....
Goddess name "Pa-bil-sag" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Tutelary god of Isin. The consort of the goddess NIN'INSINNA. Identified with the city of Larak (lost), texts describe Pabilsag journeying to Nippur and presenting the god ENLIL with gifts. He is given the epithet of “the wild bull with multicolored legs.”...
God name "Pap-nigin-gara (lord of the boundary stone)" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian God of war. Syncretized with NINURTA....
God name "Papsukkal" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Messenger god. Identified in late Akkadian texts and known chiefly from Hellenistic Babylonian times. His consort is AMASAGNUL and he acts as both messenger and gatekeeper for the rest of the pantheon. A sanctuary, the E-akkil, is identified from the Mesopotamian site of Mkis'. He becomes syncretized with NINS'UBUR....
God name "Res”ep (A) Mukal" Western Semitic / Canaanite / Phoenician / , originating in Syria war and plague god. Introduced into Egypt by the XVIII Dynasty during the sixteenth century BC and rapidly achieved some prominence. His wife is Itum and he was also known as Res ep-Amukal and Res epSulman. Res ep is probably modeled on the Mesopotamian NERGAL. He is depicted as a youthful, warlike god, often with a gazelle's head springing from his forehead, and with a spear in his right hand. In Egyptian iconography he is depicted wearing the crown of Upper Egypt surmounted in front by the head of a gazelle. He has links with the Theban war god MONTU and was thought of as a guardian deity in battle by many Egyptian pharaohs; he is said to have shot firebrands with a bow and arrow. He also exerted a benign influence against disease. The influence of Res ep extended to Cyprus during the preHellenic period and at the time of Hellenization he was allied to and perhaps syncretized with APOLLO. Also Ras ap, Res ef....
God name "S ara" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor war god. Mainly identified with the city of Umma, north east of Unug (Uruk), and identified in some texts as the son of INANA (IS TAR)....
God name "Sakka(n)" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian God of cattle. A patron god of herdsmen, probably deriving from the Sumerian god LAHAR. Also Amakandu, Sumuqan....
Goddess name "Sala" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian war goddess. A consort of ADAD, she carries a doubleheaded mace-scimitar embellished with lion heads....
Goddess name "Samas'" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Sun god. The patron deity of Sippar and Larsa. His consort is the mother goddess A-A. S amas derives from the god UTU in the Sumerian pantheon. He is associated with justice. His symbol is the Sun disc and a star surrounded with radiating Sunbeams. He may carry a single-headed scimitar embellished with a panther head. His sanctuary is known as the E-babbar. Also associated with human-headed bulls. His attendant deities include Mes aru, justice, and Kettu, righteousness. He came to much greater prominence in the pantheon at Babylon from about the eighteenth century BC....
God name "Sapas" Western Semitic / Canaanite Sun god. Modeled on the Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) god SAMAS....
Goddess name "Sarra lntu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Fertility goddess. Originally the tutelary deity of the city of Su-Sin. By Hellenistic times she probably became the more important goddess Sarrahitu who is included in the pantheon at Uruk and mentioned in various cult texts where she is described as “the bride” and was presumably involved in a sacred marriage ceremony....
God name "Sebitti" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Group of minor war gods. The children of the god ANU who follow the war god ERRA into battle. They are, in alternative traditions, of good or evil influence. In Greek tradition they become the Pleiades....
God name "Selardi" Urartian / Armenia moon god. The counterpart of the Mesopotamian deity SIN....
Goddess name "Serida" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Mother goddess. Became known as AYA in the Akkadian pantheon....
Goddess name "Siduri" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Minor goddess of brewing. Also identified with wisdom....
God name "Sin" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian moon god. Derived from the older Sumerian model of NANNA. His consort is NIKKAL (NINGAL). He is symbolized by the new moon and perceived as a bull whose horns are the crescent of the moon. Cult centers are identified at Ur, Harran and Neirab. Also Suen (archaic)....
Goddess name "Sirara" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess of the Persian Gulf. In creation mythology she is given charge over the waters of the Gulf by the god ENKI....
God name "Sirsir" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian God of mariners. The guardian of boatmen....
Goddess name "Sirtur" Mesopotamian / Sumerian / Babylonian - Akkadian Sheep goddess. Known from inscriptions and passing comments in texts. Syncretized with NINSUN....
Goddess name "Sul-pa-e (youthful radiance)" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Fertility and astral god. Identified as the personification of the planet Jupiter and, in one list, the consort of the mother goddess NINHURSAG A....
God name "Sullat" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian Minor god. An attendant of the Sun god S AMAS ....
God name "Sulman(u)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian / / western Semitic Chthonic and fertility deity. Also identified as a war god. Found in Assyria circa 1400 BC to 700 BC and known from Bronze Age inscriptions at Sidon....
Goddess name "Sulsaga" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Astral goddess. Sul-utula...
God name "Sumugan" Mesopotamian / Sumerian God of the river plains. In creation mythology he is given charge by the god ENKI over the flat alluvial lands of southern Mesopotamia....
Goddess name "Tasmetu(m)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Goddess. The consort of the god NABU....
God name "Tispak" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian God. The tutelary deity of the city of Es numma....
God name "Tutu" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian God. The tutelary god of Borsippa, near Babylon, during the reign of Hammurabi in the old Babylonian period, but later superseded by NABU....
Goddess name "Ua-Tldak" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian vegetation goddess. The deity responsible for pastures and poplar trees....
God name "Ukur" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Chthonic underworld god. Uma...
Goddess name "Uras" Mesopotamian / Sumerian Chthonic earth goddess. One of the named consorts of the sky god AN and the mother of NIN'INSINNA....
Goddess name "Uttu" Mesopotamian / Sumerian vegetation goddess and goddess of weaving. Not to be confused with UTU the Sun god, Uttu is a minor deity whose father is ENKI. According to legend, Enki first impregnated the mother goddess NINHURSAG A, whose nine-day gestation produced the goddess NIN-S'AR. She in turn was impregnated by Enki and, after a similar nine-day gestation, gave birth to the goddess NINKURRA. Through the same procedure with her grandfather, Ninkurra conceived the goddess Uttu. She is depicted as the goddess of weaving and of spiders....
God name "Wer" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian storm god. A minor deity linked with ADAD and AMURRU. His attendant is the fierce guardian of the pine Forest, Huwawa, the focus of one of the Gilgames epic sagas. Cult centers include Afis, south of Aleppo....
God name "Yah" Egypt moon god. Yah may have been an import to Egypt brought by Semitic immigrants who based his profile on the Mesopotamian god SIN. He is mentioned largely from the twentieth century BC onward and is depicted in human form, but can also be represented by the falcon and the ibis....
God name "Zababa" Mesopotamian / BabylonianAkkadian God of war. The tutelary god of the city of Kis,, whose sanctuary is the E-meteursag. Also Zamama....
Goddess name "Zarpanitu(m)" Mesopotamian / Babylonian - Akkadian Birth goddess. The consort of MARDIJK whose marriage was celebrated annually at New Year in Babylon. Also Erua; SARPANITJM....
God name "mm" Mesopotamian storm god. The cuneiform generally taken to refer to a storm god and therefore probably meaning either IS KUR (Sumerian) or ADAD (Akkadian)....